D E T E R G E N T S 

 Detergent is the term for compounds that clean and remove wastes. Enzymes have been used in detergents since 1913. There are many factors to keep in mind when making enzymes for detergents, such as the state of the detergent (i.e., liquids and powders), as well as the presence of other unfavorable factors. (citation 5)


Amylase is a commonly used enzyme in detergent. It effectively removes food starch-based stains such as chocolate, gravy, etc. Additionaly, amylase can make clothes whiter by removing starch that could act as "glue" to attract unwanted particles. Amylases require calcium ions to maintain their three-dimensional structure, and the must be created with much care. (citation 6)  


Lipases  are added into detergents to "break down lipid (fat) based stains". Lipases work best at warmer temperature--that is why clothes are cleaner when washed with warm water versus cold water. (citation 7)   


Proteases are the most commonly used enzyme in detergents. The most common stains are composed of proteins (skin cells, blood, foods, blood, etc.), and proteases specifically target proteins. However, formulating protease is a challenge, especially liquid detergents, because it breaks down the other chemicals in the detergents. (citation 6)


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